Vacuum pumps are popular, but they can be confusing. There are three popular types of vacuum pumps: positive displacement, momentum transfer and entrapment. For most applications, however, positive displacement pumps are the most popular.
Positive Displacement Pumps: How They Work
Positive displacement pumps create a vacuum by expanding a cavity, allowing liquids or gases to flow in. The cavity is then sealed off from the chamber and gases and liquids are “exhausted” to their destination. The process is repeated indefinitely. A manual water pump is a perfect example. Rotary vane pumps, diaphragm pumps and liquid ring pumps all work on the principle of positive displacement.
Rotary Vane Pumps
High pressure hydraulic pumps are rotary vane pumps. These are used for power steering, automatic transmissions and superchargers in motor vehicles. Mid range pressure rotary vane pumps are used for food and beverage applications such as espresso machines and fountain soft drinks. Low pressure rotary vane pumps can be used for chemical vapour deposition systems and secondary air injection in the emission systems of motor vehicles.
These are also known as AODD or air operated double diaphragm pumps. Air is pumped through one way valves as the chamber expands and contracts. They are used to make artificial hearts and as the air pumps on fish tank filters, but their main uses are industrial.
AODD pumps can be used for abrasive, aggressive or flammable chemical fluids for for high viscosity fluids. This can include pickling solutions, paints, slurries, ship cleaning, sewage, latex, enamels and solvents. AODD pumps also are used for dewatering in the mining industry.
Liquid Ring Pumps
Liquid ring pumps are used in the petrochemical, food manufacturing, pharmaceutical and health sectors. They are also used in power plants. They are also used in steam condenser evacuation systems, chemical reactors and evaporative coolers.
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